vor 57 Minuten Der Botschafter von Saudi-Arabien ist nach dem Ende der politischen Krise mit Deutschland zurück in Berlin. Eine Sprecherin der Berliner. Der Koalition droht neuer Streit um Rüstungsexporte nach Saudi-Arabien. Nach SPIEGEL-Informationen fordern SPD-Politiker, die Fraktion über einen härteren. In Saudi-Arabien werden grundlegende Menschenrechte nicht beachtet, was.
arabien saudi -Die Verurteilten, ihre Anwälte und Angehörigen erfahren den Hinrichtungstermin oft nicht. Da viele der alten Mitglieder bei den Erweiterungen nicht wieder ernannt wurden, hat sich die Zusammensetzung des Gremiums stark verändert. Im September demonstrierten Schiiten gegen die fortdauernde Inhaftierung mehrerer Glaubensbrüder, die im April im Zusammenhang mit Protesten und Ausschreitungen festgenommen worden waren. Sie müssen auf den Ruf der Familie achten — jedes unerwünschte Verhalten kann der Ehre ihrer Familie schaden, was als todeswürdige Sünde angesehen wird. Es besteht eine neunjährige Schulpflicht für beide Geschlechter. Insgesamt bestehen folgende Ministerien:. Als Peseiro während der Asienmeisterschaft sein Amt niederlegen musste, übernahm Al Johar erneut — für neun Tage. Dabei handelt es sich um hermetisch abgeriegelte und bewachte Siedlungen. Frauen können sich vor Gericht von ihrem männlichen Vormund entbinden lassen, müssen dafür aber nachweisen können, dass dieser sie misshandelt, vergewaltigt, quält oder zwingt, Dinge zu tun, die nicht mit dem Islam vereinbar sind z. Juli , abgerufen am Teile der Investitionen kommen aus der Privatwirtschaft. Die Stadt liegt eingebettet zwischen dem Meer und dem Asir-Gebirge. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Obwohl das Embargo sein Ziel, Jerusalem zurück unter arabische Hoheit zu bringen verfehlte, erlangte das wahhabitische Saudi-Arabien durch seine Vorreiterrolle in der Öldiplomatie einen Prestigegewinn in der muslimischen Welt. Sie dürfen nur mit Genehmigung betreten werden. In drei Ausschüssen stellen sie die stellvertretenden Vorsitzenden. Aufgrund des hartnäckigen Widerstands der Quraisch gegen seine neue Lehre wanderte er im Sommer mit seinen Anhängern in die Stadt Yathrib später als Medina bekannt aus, wo sich bereits zahlreiche Angehörige der Stämme Aus und Chazradsch seiner Religion angeschlossen hatten. Zudem sei ein Krankenhaus von der saudischen Polizei umstellt worden, wodurch die Verletzten nicht behandelt werden konnten. Dafür spricht zum Beispiel, dass der angeschlagene Thronfolger die Kommission leitet, die den Khashoggi-Mord aufklären soll. Der Jahresbericht der Organisation Amnesty International  listet unter anderem die folgenden Tatbestände auf:. Womöglich werden inhaftierte Aktivisten freigelassen, um das Ansehen des Regimes aufzupolieren.
Saudi Arabien VideoDokument utifrån: Saudiarabien - farliga förbindelser
In bedroeg de goudproductie Verder werd nog op zeer bescheiden schaal koper en zink gewonnen. Olie en olieproducten zijn de belangrijkste exportgoederen.
De opbrengsten zijn afhankelijk van de uitgevoerde hoeveelheden en de wereldmarktprijs voor aardolie. De prijs is aan grote schommelingen onderhevig en daarmee ook dus de exportopbrengsten.
De overheid streeft naar een stabiele, maar ook hoge olieprijs, om daarmee de inkomsten zeker te stellen. De import bestaat voornamelijk uit consumptiegoederen, waaronder voedingsmiddelen en textiel, en kapitaalgoederen als machines en transportmiddelen.
Eenmaal opgepompt water wordt niet meer aangevuld waardoor deze reserves eindig zijn. Daarnaast beschikt het land over 30 installaties waar zeewater wordt omgezet in zoet water.
De meeste zoetwaterinstallaties zijn gecombineerd met elektriciteitscentrales . De elektriciteitsproductie laat een sterke groei zien.
De productiecapaciteit steeg in een gelijk tempo tot Bijna de gehele elektriciteitsvoorziening is in de handen van de Saudi Electricity Company SEC , een beursgenoteerd bedrijf met de overheid als grootste aandeelhouder.
SEC produceert elektriciteit en verzorgt de transmissie en distributie naar de eindverbruiker. De meest gebruikte brandstof voor de opwekking van elektriciteit is aardgas.
SEC beschikt over een vloot van 53 grote en 17 kleine centrales per eind SEC zelf meldt een totale capaciteit van Het bedrijf is volledig gereguleerd waarbij de overheid alle tarieven vaststelt.
Het land heeft sinds een eigen effectenbeurs , de Saudi Stock Exchange ook wel Tadawul genoemd. Het land is een niet-gebonden staat waarvan het buitenlands beleid als doel heeft tot het behoud van haar veiligheid en haar positie op het Arabisch Schiereiland , het verdedigen van algemene Arabische en islamitische belangen, het promoten van solidariteit tussen overheden van islamitische staten en het aangaan en onderhouden van samenwerkingsverbanden met andere olie-producerende en grote olie-consumerende landen.
Het land speelt een prominente rol in het Internationaal Monetair Fonds , de Wereldbank en is lid van de G Het is een van de grootste donoren in de wereld en geeft steun aan een aantal Arabische, Afrikaanse en Aziatische landen.
In Djedda is het secretariaat van de Organisatie voor Islamitische Samenwerking gevestigd en van haar in opgerichte dochterorganisatie de Islamitische Ontwikkelingsbank.
Als stichtend lid van de OPEC heeft ze over het algemeen als beleid om de olieprijs in de wereld te stabiliseren en te proberen scherpe schommelingen in de prijs te beperken.
Door zijn enorme olievoorraden wordt het land gezien als swing producer en kan het zijn olieproductie snel opvoeren als daar vraag naar is.
Deze cultuur wordt versterkt door de strak puriteinse wahabitische vorm van de islam, die ontstond in de 18e eeuw en nu overheerst in het land.
De vele beperkingen op het gedrag en de kleding worden strikt juridisch en maatschappelijk afgedwongen. Alcoholische dranken bijvoorbeeld zijn verboden en er is geen theater of openbare vertoning van films.
Meningsuiting in het openbaar over de binnenlandse politieke of sociale zaken worden ontmoedigd. Er zijn geen organisaties zoals politieke partijen of vakbonden.
Het dagelijks leven wordt gedomineerd door de islamitische voorschriften. Vrijdag is de heiligste dag voor moslims.
Het weekend is sinds juni veranderd en vastgesteld op vrijdag en zaterdag. Viering van andere islamitische feestdagen zoals de verjaardag van de Profeet en Asjoera een belangrijke feestdag voor de sjiieten wordt alleen gedoogd wanneer deze lokaal en op kleine schaal worden gevierd.
Openbare naleving van niet-islamitische religieuze feestdagen is verboden, met uitzondering van 23 september, die de eenwording van het koninkrijk herdenkt.
Het Saoedische wahabisme staat echter vijandig tegenover elke vorm van eerbied die wordt gegeven aan historische of religieuze plaatsen van betekenis uit angst dat daardoor afgoderij ontstaat.
Critici hebben dit beschreven als "Saoedi-vandalisme" en beweren dat in de afgelopen 50 jaar historische plaatsen die in verband stonden met Mohammed, zijn familie of begeleiders verloren zijn gegaan.
De Saoedi-Arabische kleding volgt strikt de principes van de hidjab het islamitische principe van bescheidenheid, vooral in de kledij.
Traditioneel dragen mannen meestal een hemd dat reikt tot aan de enkels. Het hemd is geweven van wol of katoen bekend als een thawb met een keffiyeh een groot geblokt vierkant van katoen, op zijn plaats gehouden door een agaal of een ghutra een effen wit vierkant gemaakt van fijnere katoen, ook op zijn plaats gehouden door een agaal gedragen op het hoofd.
Op de zeldzame koude dagen dragen Saoedi-mannen een kamelenharen mantel bisht. Dameskleding is versierd met tribale motieven, munten, pailletten, metalen draad en appliques.
Vrouwen moeten een abaja dragen of bescheiden gekleed zijn in het openbaar. Duiken, windsurfen, zeilen en basketbal zijn ook populair en worden zowel door mannen als vrouwen beoefend.
Het Saoedi-Arabische nationale basketbalteam won brons tijdens het Asian Championship in Meer traditionele sporten zoals kamelenraces werden populair in de jaren Een stadion in Riyad houdt races in de winter.
De jaarlijkse King's Camel Race, begonnen in , is een van de belangrijkste van de sportwedstrijden en trekt dieren en ruiters uit de hele regio.
Islamitische spijswetten worden afgedwongen: Platte ongezuurde broden zijn een hoofdbestanddeel van vrijwel elke maaltijd, net als de dadel en vers fruit.
Koffie, geserveerd in de Turkse stijl, is de traditionele drank. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie. Saudi Arabia , U. Een productie van 1 Mtoe per jaar is gemiddeld 20 duizend vaten olie-equivalent BOE per dag.
Bahrain changes the weekend in efficiency drive , The Times , 2 August Geraadpleegd op 14 mei Overgenomen van " https: Lokale afbeelding anders dan op Wikidata Wikipedia: Artikel mist referentie sinds oktober Wikipedia: Commonscat met lokaal zelfde link als op Wikidata Wikipedia: Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Geschiedenis.
Informatie Gebruikersportaal Snelcursus Hulp en contact Donaties. Hulpmiddelen Links naar deze pagina Verwante wijzigingen Bestand uploaden Speciale pagina's Permanente koppeling Paginagegevens Wikidata-item Deze pagina citeren.
In andere projecten Wikimedia Commons. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 20 okt om Zie de gebruiksvoorwaarden voor meer informatie.
Koning Salman bin Abdoel Aziz al-Saoed. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun — , Umayyad — , Abbasid — and the Fatimid — caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia, Africa and Europe.
The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of mainly four distinct regions: He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in with the capture of Riyadh , the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud.
Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy , effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines.
As of , the state had a total population of Petroleum was discovered on 3 March and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province.
Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. In the case of the Al Saud , this is the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud.
There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about , years ago.
Arabia underwent an extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary that lead to profound evolutionary and demographic changes.
Arabia has a rich Lower Paleolithic record, and the quantity of Oldwan-like sites in the region indicate a significant role that Arabia had played in the early hominin colonization of Eurasia.
In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as al-Magar whose epicenter lay in modern-day southwestern Najd flourished. In November hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the Canaan dog , wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern Saudi Arabia.
These rock engravings date back more than years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world.
At the end of the 4th millennium BC , Arabia entered the Bronze Age after witnessing drastic transformations; metals were widely used, and the period was characterized by its 2 m high burials which was simultaneously followed by the existence of numerous temples, that included many free-standing sculptures originally painted with red colours.
The earliest sedentary culture in Saudi Arabia dates back to the Ubaid period, upon discovering various pottery shreds at Dosariyah.
Initial analysis of the discovery concluded that the eastern province of Saudi Arabia was the homeland of the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia, and by extension, the likely origin of the Sumerians.
However, experts such as Joan Oates had the opportunity to see the Ubaid period shreds in eastern Arabia and consequently conclude that the shreds dates to the last two phases of Ubaid period period three and four , while handful examples could be classified roughly as either Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 2.
Thus the idea that colonists from Saudi Arabia had emigrated to southern Mesopotamia and founded the region's first sedentary culture was abandoned.
Climatic change and the onset of aridity may have brought about the end of this phase of settlement, as little archaeological evidence exists from the succeeding millennium.
Known records from Uruk refer to a place called Dilmun , associated in several occasions with copper and in later period it was a source of imported woods in southern Mesopotamia.
A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast.
It is likely that Tarout Island was the main port and the capital of Dilmun. In an earthworks in Tarout exposed ancient burial field that yielded a large impressive statue dating to the Dilmunite period mid 3rd millennium BC.
The statue was locally made under strong Mesopotamian influence on the artistic principle of Dilmun. By BC, the centre of Dilmun shifted for unknown reasons from Tarout and the Saudi Arabian mainland to the island of Bahrain , and a major developed settlements appeared in Bahrain for the first time, where a laborious temple complex and thousands of burial mounds that dates to this period were discovered.
By the Late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land Median and the Medianites in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible.
Centered in Tabouk , Median stretched from Wadi Arabah in the north to the area of al-Wejh in the south. The city hosted as many as ten to twelve thousand inhabitants.
Politically, the Medianite were described as having decentralized structure headed by five kings Evi, Rekem, Tsur, Hur and Reba , the names appears to be toponyms of important Medianite settlements.
At the end of the 7th century BC an emerging kingdom appeared on the historical theater of north-western Arabia. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe.
Lihyan was a powerful and highly organized ancient Arabian kingdom that played a vital cultural and economic role in the north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula.
A testimony to the extensive influence that Lihyan acquired. The Nabataeans ruled large portions of north Arabia until their domain was annexed by the Roman Empire.
Shortly before the advent of Islam, apart from urban trading settlements such as Mecca and Medina , much of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic pastoral tribal societies.
In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands.
Arab dynasties, originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia, Hejaz in particular, founded the Rashidun — , Umayyad — , Abbasid — and the Fatimid — caliphates.
From the 10th century to the early 20th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca , but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad , Cairo or Istanbul.
Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule. For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili -Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf.
In , the Qarmatians pillaged Mecca, outraging the Muslim world, particularly with their theft of the Black Stone.
The Bani Khalid tribe later revolted against them in 17th century and took control. The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in , when Muhammad bin Saud , founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab ,  founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam.
The first "Saudi state" established in in the area around Riyadh , rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,  sacking Karbala in and capturing Mecca in , but was destroyed by by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt , Mohammed Ali Pasha.
Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers,   with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz.
Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units.
After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan , Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories.
This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization and the increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country.
As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after a two-year struggle, were defeated in at the Battle of Sabilla , where their leaders were massacred.
The new kingdom was reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues. Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally.
Cultural life rapidly developed, primarily in the Hejaz, which was the center for newspapers and radio. However, the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia.
At the same time, the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant. By the s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing.
In , Saud of Saudi Arabia succeeded as the king of Saudi Arabia, on his father's death, until when he was deposed in favor of his half brother Faisal of Saudi Arabia , after an intense rivalry, fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence.
By , Saudi Arabia had become the largest oil producer in the world. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution.
It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province which is also the location of the oil fields might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists.
There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the Qatif Uprising. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government.
Part of the response of the royal family was to enforce a much stricter observance of traditional religious and social norms in the country for example, the closure of cinemas and to give the Ulema a greater role in government.
In , Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco. King Khalid died of a heart attack in June He was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd , who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in in response to considerable fundamentalist pressure to avoid use of "majesty" in association with anything except God.
Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment.
The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. It led to rapid technological but not cultural modernisation, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media.
This and the presence of increasingly large numbers of foreign workers greatly affected traditional Saudi norms and values.
Although there was dramatic change in the social and economic life of the country, political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family  leading to discontent among many Saudis who began to look for wider participation in government.
He invited the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to stay in Saudi Arabia, but expelled citizens of Yemen and Jordan because of their governments' support of Iraq.
In , Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait.
Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals.
Osama bin Laden was a Saudi national until stripped of his nationality in and was responsible for the U. Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government.
Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. High taxes and a growth in unemployment have contributed to discontent, and has been reflected in a rise in civil unrest, and discontent with the royal family.
In response, a number of limited "reforms" were initiated by King Fahd. In March , he introduced the " Basic Law ", which emphasised the duties and responsibilities of a ruler.
In December , the Consultative Council was inaugurated. It is composed of a chairman and 60 members—all chosen by the King.
The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible.
In , Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah , assumed the role of de facto regent , taking on the day-to-day running of the country.
However, his authority was hindered by conflict with Fahd's full brothers known, with Fahd, as the " Sudairi Seven ".
Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. In , King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests.
The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: In February , Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween religious police with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister.
On 29 January , hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing eleven people.
Since , Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September ,   Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the municipal elections , and also to be nominated to the Shura Council.
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. In the absence of national elections and political parties,  politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis.
Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events.
The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority —particularly in the Eastern Province ; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents for example in the Hejaz.
The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions  and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation.
The royal family dominates the political system. The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government.
Long term political and government appointments have resulted in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes,  such as those of King Abdullah, who had been Commander of the National Guard since until , when he appointed his son to replace him ,  former Crown Prince Sultan , Minister of Defence and Aviation from to his death in , former crown prince Prince Nayef who was the Minister of Interior from to his death in , Prince Saud who had been Minister of Foreign Affairs since  and current King Salman , who was Minister of Defense and Aviation before he was crown prince and Governor of the Riyadh Province from to The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences.
There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption.
However, nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country. The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity.
A number of prominent Saudi Arabian princes, government ministers, and businesspeople, including Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal , were arrested in Saudi Arabia in November There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in The creation of the Consultative Council in the early s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in , an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters.
In , the first municipal elections were held. In , the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession. Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists a direct role in government.
The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in By the s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline.
The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh ,  the country's leading religious family. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority  thereby using its religious- moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule.
The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah the traditions of the Prophet.
Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence or fiqh found in pre-modern texts  and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith.
Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments either his own or of other judges and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases,  making predictability of legal interpretation difficult.
Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia.
Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for its "ultra-puritanical judges", who are often harsh in their sentencing with beheading for the crime of witchcraft , but also sometimes overly lenient for cases of rape or wife-beating and slow, for example leaving thousands of abandoned women unable to secure a divorce.
Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading , stoning to death , amputation , crucifixion and lashing , as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized.
The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between and Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death.
Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas , are practised: Even after allowing women to drive and work, public places in Saudi Arabia are still gender-segregated and the kingdom has very strict laws on how unrelated men and women can dine together.
In September , a man was arrested by the Saudi authorities for appearing in a video with his female colleague while having breakfast at a hotel, where they both work.
Western-based organizations such as Amnesty International , Human Rights Watch and Freedom House condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments.
There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess.
At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense. Most trials are held in secret.
Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world. Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women see Women below , capital punishment for homosexuality ,  religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police see Religion below.
To date, the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence. In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record, the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country, and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order.
For example, Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in when he was 17 years old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring.
In , the government deported thousands of non-Saudis, many of them who were working illegally in the country or had overstayed their visas.
Many reports abound, of foreigner workers being tortured either by employers or others. Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous sic " and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith , such as tolerance and moderation.
According to Turkish government sources there is audio and video evidence for him having been murdered and dismembered inside the consulate. Since , as a founding member of OPEC , its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies.
However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam.
The relations with the U. Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide. In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American,  and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States.
China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades.
Majority of Saudi Arabians also expressed a favorable view of China. The consequences of the invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran 's influence in the region.
In order to protect the house of Khalifa, the monarchs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on 14 March According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki in March , Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political, financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government.
On 25 March , Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states,  started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh , who was deposed in the Arab Spring uprisings.
Saudi Arabia, together with Qatar and Turkey , openly supported the Army of Conquest ,  an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly included an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham.
Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season, the deadliest  of which killed at least 2, pilgrim  in Mina stampede , Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims' welfare.
In March , Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. The decision came after Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom was blocked by the Saudis while speaking about democracy and women's rights at the Arab League in Cairo.
This also led to Saudi Arabia recalling its ambassador to Sweden. Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab—Israeli conflict , periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah.
In August both countries appeared to be exploring ways of ending the rift. In , Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar.
Tensions have escalated between the Saudi and its allies after the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi from the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia—Turkey relations.
The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. Theresa May backed the US call to end the coalition.
In the armed forces had the following personnel: The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan , it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future.
Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation.
The late prince Sultan, former Minister of Defense and Aviation, was one of the so-called 'Sudairi Seven' and controlled the remainder of the armed forces until his death in Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain.
The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces. The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since Major imports in —14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the USA, 4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over armoured vehicles from Canada.
Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK, combat aircraft from the USA and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada.
Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely marked, the exact size of the country is undefined.
Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert , associated semi-desert and shrubland see satellite image and several mountain ranges and highlands.
The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment.
Except for the southwestern province of Asir , Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night.
Annual rainfall is extremely low. The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons , usually occurring between October and March.
Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard ,   wolf , striped hyena , mongoose , baboon , hare , sand cat , and jerboa. Animals such as gazelles, oryx , leopards and cheetahs  were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction.
Birds include falcons which are caught and trained for hunting , eagles, hawks, vultures, sandgrouse , and bulbuls.
There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous. Saudi Arabia is home to a rich marine life. The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem.
The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders such as the Blue Hole Red Sea at Dahab.
These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark.
The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls. Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic i. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse , Arabian camel , sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc.
Reflecting the country's dominant desert conditions, Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of herbs, plants and shrubs that require little water.
The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions  Arabic: The regions are further divided into governorates Arabic: This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities Arabic: The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates Arabic: As of October , Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world.
Saudi Arabia is considered an " energy superpower ". Saudi Arabia officially has about billion barrels 4. In the s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth.
From — "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized.
According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities.
Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in , the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom.
The government has also made an attempt at " Saudizing " the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.
Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since Among its plans were to launch "economic cities" e. King Abdullah Economic City to be completed by , in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs.
As of [update] four cities were planned. In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector especially in the southwest but not only based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc.
Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any.
In December , the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube.
Source close to Bloomberg claimed the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia will receive additional cash after two years of major new investments.
Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners.
The rate of local unemployment is at its peak in more than a decade, with According to a report published by Bloomberg Economics in , the government needs to produce , jobs by to meet its unemployment rate.
Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the s. The government launched an extensive program to promote modern farming technology; to establish rural roads, irrigation networks and storage and export facilities; and to encourage agricultural research and training institutions.
As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs.
The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world.
Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. In addition, Saudi farmers grow substantial amounts of other grains such as barley, sorghum and millet.
As of , in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East.
Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1, gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East.
The Kingdom's most dramatic agricultural accomplishment, noted worldwide, was its rapid transformation from importer to exporter of wheat. In , the country built its first grain silos.
By , it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some thirty countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 3.
The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers.
Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes.
At Jizan in the country's well-watered southwest, the Al-Hikmah Research Station is producing tropical fruits including pineapples, paw-paws, bananas, mangoes and guavas.
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September 12, News Release. A Houthi spokesman stated on 28 April that the airstrikes had killed members of all pro-Houthi forces since the campaign started.
According to the United Nations, between 26 March and 10 May , the conflict, killed at least Yemeni civilians, including 91 women and children.
On 6 May HRW reported that an airstrike struck a residential home in Saada, killing 27 members of one family, including 17 children  and on 26 May, 7 more members of the same family were killed in another airstrike.
On 27 May nearly people were killed due to airstrikes hitting Sanaa, Sa'da and Hodeida in the largest ever one-day death toll throughout the conflict.
On 30 June HRW released a report stating that coalition airstrikes on the northern Yemeni city of Saada, a Houthi rebel stronghold, had killed dozens of civilians and wrecked homes and markets.
The group said it had documented a dozen airstrikes on Saada that destroyed or damaged civilian homes, five markets, a school and a petrol station although there was no evidence of military use.
On 6 July airstrikes killed over people including more than 30 civilians in Al Joob, Amran. Local residents also reported 30 deaths in a raid they said apparently targeted a Houthi checkpoint on the main road between Aden and Lahj.
They said 10 of the dead were Houthi fighters. MSF head of mission in Yemen said "It is unacceptable that airstrikes take place in highly concentrated civilian areas where people are gathering and going about their daily lives, especially at a time such as Ramadan.
On 25 July airstrikes killed over civilians in the town of Mokha, marking the deadliest strike yet against civilians. The airstrikes hit workers' housing for a power plant in Mokha, flattening some of the buildings, the officials said.
A fire erupted in the area, charring many of the corpses. Mokha, populated largely by fisherman, had a reputation as one of the safest places in the country embroiled in war, said Boucenine.
On 18 August AI reported that it had confirmed civilian deaths from eight airstrikes. On 15 March Saudi-led airstrikes on a market in Mastaba killed at least people, including 25 children.
The attack on 8 October killed people and injuring persons in one of the single worst death tolls in the two-year war. The United Kingdom is under pressure for exporting arms to Saudi Arabia.
On 11 September , UN Human Rights Commissioner said that of 1, civilians killed between 26 March and 30 June, at least people were killed by airstrikes carried out by the Saudi-led coalition.
On 24 August, the UN special representative of the secretary-general for children and armed conflict said, that of children killed in Yemen since late March , 73 percent were victims of Saudi coalition-led airstrikes.
On top of this, more than 23, had been wounded. On 27 October, the OHCHR said that out of 2, civilians killed between 26 March and 26 October , 1, civilians had reportedly been killed due to airstrikes carried out by the Saudi-led coalition.
The January report of a UN panel of experts, presented to the UN security council, attributed 60 percent 2, of all civilian deaths and injuries in the war since 26 March to air-launched explosive weapons.
On 1 February Reuters reported: On 16 September , The Guardian reported: Of these, 3, were listed as having hit military sites and 3, struck non-military sites The UN has put the death toll of the month war at more than 10,, with 3, of them being civilians.
In October , a densely populated funeral in Yemen was struck , leaving at least dead  and wounded,  including the senior military and security officials of the Shia Houthi and loyalists of former president Ali Abdullah Saleh.
Secretary of State John Kerry sought assurances from Saudi Arabia that incidents such as the airstrike on a civilian funeral in Sana'a will not happen again.
He proposed a cease-fire and a return to talks aiming for a political resolution of the conflict.
Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said he hoped to institute a hour cease-fire as soon as possible, provided the Houthis will agree.
In December , Saudis killed and injured Yemeni's in 26 days . On 9 August , a school bus was hit by a Saudi airstrike , killing 51 people and injuring According to an annual round-up published on 29 December by RSF, six journalists in Yemen out of 67 worldwide were killed in because of their work or while reporting.
On 17 January , the freelance Yemeni journalist Almigdad Mojalli was killed in an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition in Jaref, a Houthi-controlled district in the outskirts of Sana'a.
On 21 January , the year-old TV cameraman Hashem al-Hamran was mortally injured by an air-strike by the Saudi-led coalition in the city of Dahian Saada Governorate , when he was filming bombing raids for the Houthi-run television channel al-Masirah TV.
He died from his wounds on 22 January The director of Yemen TV , Munir al-Hakami, and his wife, Suaad Hujaira, who also worked for the state-owned, Houthi-controlled broadcaster, were killed along with their three children by a coalition air strike on 9 February In February , the UN Security Council noted that in terms of "numbers of people in need" the humanitarian crisis in Yemen was "the largest in the world".
In mid-February , Stephen O'Brien said the situation in Yemen was a "humanitarian catastrophe", with 21 million people in need of some kind of aid, 7.
According to Lamya Khalidi, an archaeologist At least sixty of Yemen's monuments have been damaged or destroyed in the bombing campaign by Saudi-led coalition in March Among these monuments are unique archaeological monuments, old cities, museums, mosques, churches and tombs  .
On 26 March, Interior Ministry officials linked to Ansar Allah documented that 23 civilians had been killed and 24 wounded. Among the dead were 5 children, ages 2 to 13, 6 women and an elderly man.
The wounded included 12 children, ages 3 to 8, and 2 women due to airstrike against Sana'a particularly in Bani Hawat , a predominantly Houthi neighborhood near Sanaa's airports and al-Nasr, near the presidential palace.
HRW documented the deaths of 11 civilians, including 2 women and 2 children, other than those provided by the Yemeni officials along with 14 more wounded, including 3 children and 1 woman.
According to AI, that bombing destroyed at least 14 homes in Bani Hawat. On 31 March, OCHA reported that 13 of 22 Governorates were affected and highlighted infrastructure effects that detailed coalition bombing of a refugee camp that killed 29 and injured Fuel shortages in the south threatened water access to citizens and in Lahj, electricity and water services had not been functioning for several days.
It reported that two fuel stations were destroyed. In al-Kadima area in al-Kita, several passengers were killed in a car that had stopped to refuel and a worker was injured.
The third strike, apparently aimed at a passing fuel tanker, set fire to at least three civilian homes. AI then stated that "it is becoming increasingly apparent that the Saudi Arabian-led coalition is turning a blind eye to civilian deaths and suffering caused by its military intervention.
On 17 April, OCHA reported on the increasing deterioration of the humanitarian situation, reporting airstrikes hitting in Saada City a water tank, the electricity station, a petrol station, a plastics processing factory, a shopping centre and a housing complex.
Several days earlier, airstrikes had hit private homes, the post office, a community centre, government offices, markets and vehicles.
Local partners estimated about 50 dead within the past week. In Sana'a residential neighborhoods near Assir, Ayban and Faj Attan were affected due to their proximity to military camps.
In Amran, airstrikes hit a petrol station, an educational institute and a bridge. According to local reports, a local water corporation in Hajjah Abbs District was hit.
The report also stated that civilian casualties were under-reported as families without access to hospitals bury their members at home.
On 20 April coalition airstrikes hit the Fajj Atan military base, causing a large explosion that killed 38 civilians and injured over The airstrike also targeted the office of Yemen Today, a TV network owned by Ali Abdullah Saleh , killing three and injuring other workers.
An eye witness reported that emergency rooms were overwhelmed. On 24 April UNICEF released a report stating that since the start of the military intervention, children had been killed, with at least 64 from aerial bombardment.
According to OCHA's fifth report, released on 26 April, humanitarian operations would come to a complete halt within two weeks and hospitals in both Sanaa and Aden would close completely due to the lack of fuel.
The lack of fuel affected water supplies. The healthcare system faced an imminent collapse with hospitals struggling to operate due to lack of medicines and supplies.
Casualties from 19 March to 22 April reached 1, 28 children and 48 women and 4, wounded 80 children and women. Airstrikes were also reported at Al Hudayda Airport and Saada.
Widespread internet and phone disruptions were reported in several governorates due to the lack of fuel and electricity. On 25 April, the Yemen Public Telecommunications Corporation warned that unless the fuel crisis was resolved, telecommunication services mobile phones, internet, and land lines would shut down within a week.
The disruption in communication was affecting information flow on humanitarian needs and operations. On 29 April, Haradh was heavily bombarded, including areas near the main hospital.
Food distribution and aid would reportedly stop within a week if additional fuel could not be obtained.
As of 29 April the Al Hudaydah Governorate ran out of fuel and aid operations could not be completed. It also indicated that over 3, people from Yemen had arrived in Somalia since the fighting escalated, with 2, arrivals registered in Puntland and 1, registered in the Somaliland.
A further 8, migrants were registered in Djibouti, 4, of whom were third country nationals. On 4 May coalition airstrikes hit SIA, destroying a cargo ship and other planes used to transport food and supplies.
In Aden, the districts of Craiter and Al-Muala were without electricity, water and telecommunication for over a week according to residents. On 5 May, in order to send humanitarian aid, van der Klaauw haggled with the coalition to stop bombing SIA.
The conflict forced more than centres to close. He added that they were especially concerned about an airstrike that targeted a military field hospital.
On 6 May, the OCHA reported lack of fuel to support humanitarian operations beyond one week, with fuel and food prices continuing to increase.
Edward Santiago, country director for Save the Children, said in statement a short time ceasefire is not enough to allow for humanitarian supplies.
On 7 May, trade sources stated that merchant ships had been delayed weeks Yemen and in one case, following inspection and approval, a food supply ship was denied access.
Local sources reported that 13 villagers were killed due to shelling near the border. On 18 May, HRW documented airstrikes that hit homes and markets and killed and wounded civilians.
HRW documented the bombing of four markets. On 21 May, OCHA reported airstrikes that hit two farms adjacent to a humanitarian facility in Hajjah Governorate and resulted in civilian casualties.
A warehouse containing humanitarian supplies was damaged in another strike. In Sa'adah City, satellite imagery analysis identified widespread damage to infrastructure with 1, structures affected, damaged or destroyed.
The analysis showed that as of 17 May, 35 impact craters existed within the city, mostly along the runway of Sa'ada airport. Similar imagery of Aden identified affected structures, including destroyed.
Local partners reported that schools were forced to close in Sana'a, affecting , students. The continued restrictions on the arrival of goods via air and sea ports, and insecurity on roads, restricted the delivery of essential supplies.
In Sana'a, security concerns due to airstrikes prevented delivery of food assistance. On 21 May, five Ethiopian migrants were killed and two others injured in an airstrike that hit open space metres from an IOM-managed Migrant Response Centre.
With continued conflict and import restrictions, Emergency IPC Phase 4 outcomes were likely in the coming month.
It manages emergency operations nationwide. On 5 June, the Washington Post reported that several Yemeni cultural and heritage strikes had been repeatedly targeted by Saudi airstrikes.
On 17 June, an OCHA report highlighted that food security had continued to worsen, with 19 out of 22 governorates now classified 'crisis' or 'emergency'.
Half the population was 'food insecure' and nearly a quarter 'severely food insecure. More than six million Yemenis were then in a Phase 4 Emergency, and nearly 6.
These figures indicate that Yemen was approaching a complete breakdown in food security and health. On 26 July, the OCHA announced that airstrikes hit the residential complex of the Al Mukha Power Station in Al Mukha District, Taiz Governorate with health facilities reporting 55 deaths and 96 injuries and media reports as high as , all civilians.
On 27 August, the OCHA announced that airstrikes targeting that Al-Hudaydah port facilities late on 17 August and early 18 August had brought the port activities to a near halt and that the port was empty of all vessels and remained non-operational.
A UN-chartered aid vessel carrying 2, MT of mixed food commodities left the port and was rerouted to Djibouti.
On 5 January , an airstrike by the Saudi-led military coalition hit the Al Noor Center for Care and Rehabilitation of Blind, in the Safiah district of Sana'a,    the capital's only center, school, and home for people with visual disabilities.
Human Rights Watch and media reported, if the bomb had exploded, the damage would have been much worse. HRW said Houthi militants were partially to blame for using civilian sites for military purposes.
Armed Houthis were stationed near the Al Noor center, putting the students at risk. On 20 April the UN General Assembly Security Council in a report covering the period January to December "verified a sixfold increase in the number of children killed and maimed compared with , totalling 1, child casualties children killed and 1, injured.
More than 70 per cent were boys. Of the casualties, 60 per cent deaths and injuries were attributed to the Saudi Arabia-led coalition.
On 8 October , airstrikes by Saudi led coalition force kill people and injuring persons in one of the single worst death tolls in the two-year war. There are coalitions between Saudi Arabia and his allies in the subject.
On 2 August , The New York Times reported that at least 30 people have killed when the Saudi led coalition air force hit fish market, the entrance to the main hospital and a security compound.
On 9 August , a Saudi airstrike in Dahyan hit a school bus causing approximately 51 deaths. Many of these deaths were schoolchildren and other civilians.
Saada was the governorate of origin of , IDPs out of 2,, in total as of December On 18 April, an airstrike in Saada hit an Oxfam warehouse, damaging humanitarian supplies and killing at least one civilian.
Aid groups widely condemned the strike. On 8 and 9 May , large-scale displacement was reported in Saada to neighbouring areas, after the Saudi-led military coalition declared the entire Saada governorate a "military zone" and started heavy airstrikes.
The Save the Children 's Country Director in Yemen, Edward Santiago, said that many more were "largely unable to flee for safety because of the de facto blockade imposed by the coalition leading to severe fuel shortages".
Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen, Johannes van der Klaauw, condemned the air strikes on Saada city as being in breach of international humanitarian law.
In August the Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development ACTED reported that "the crisis has taken an immeasurably heavy toll on civilians in this poor, rural governorate, causing death, injury and frequent damage and destruction of infrastructure.
Michael Seawright, a Saada-based MSF project coordinator, said that they treated a high number of casualties, many with severe injuries.
The Shiara hospital in Razeh District in Saada City, the only hospital with a trauma centre in the governorate of Saada and in most of northern Yemen, was hit on 10 January, and several people were killed, including medical personnel.
MSF had been working in the facility since November Following a surge in aerial bombing raids in the Old City of Sana'a in June , the UN warned, that the country's extensive archaeological and historic heritage had been increasingly under threat.
On 6 September , Al Sabaeen paediatric hospital in Sana'a had to be evacuated after a nearby airstrike. A joint report by the UK-based charity Action on Armed Violence AOAV and the UN-OCHA, that concluded that airstrikes were responsible for 60 percent of civilian casualties in the first seven months of ,   came to the result, that more than half 53 per cent of the reported civilian toll was recorded in Sana'a and surrounding districts.
On 7 January , HRW reported and condemned that the Saudi Arabia-led coalition forces had used cluster bombs on residential areas of Sanaa on 6 January.
In April and May mass displacement was observed primarily in Saada, Amran and Hajjah governorates as airstrikes and shelling intensified in the north of Yemen.
On 13 April, OCHA reported that as of 11 April more than , people were estimated to have been internally displaced since 26 March On 17 May the UN, citing Yemen's health services, said that as of 15 May , had been internally displaced because of the war,   up from , announced on 15 May On 1 June, the UN announced that 1,, people had been internally displaced as of 28 May On 6 July the UN announced that as of 2 July there were 1,, internally displaced people in Yemen.
On 5 August, a task force of the Global Protection Cluster announced their estimate of 1,, internally displaced persons from more than , households in Yemen.
The 6th RFPM report published on 10 December gave a figure of 2,, internally displaced persons. Patients could not be treated due to lack of water in affected areas.
OCHA was also investigating reports of a Measles outbreak. Health officials considered the breakdown in health services, including decrease in immunization coverage, closure of health facilities and difficulty in accessing health services as possible contributing factors.
In June , Oxfam's humanitarian programme manager in Sanaa said that Saudi-led naval blockade "means it's impossible to bring anything into the country.
There are lots of ships, with basic things like flour, that are not allowed to approach. The situation is deteriorating, hospitals are now shutting down, without diesel.
People are dying of simple diseases. In October , health authorities in Yemen confirmed a cholera outbreak in Sanaa and Taiz. The water and sanitation systems are largely inoperable  The International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC and the UN, have pointed to the Saudi-led naval and aerial blockade and bombing campaign as central causes behind the preventable cholera epidemic.
With the right medicines, these [diseases] are all completely treatable — but the Saudi Arabia-led coalition is stopping them from getting in.
More than 50, children in Yemen died from starvation in His sources speculate that the Saudis are supplying most of the funding. On January the Houthis media wing revealed Saudi losses suffered during the military operation in Following the call by the leader of the Houthi movement, Abdul-Malik al-Houthi , tens of thousands Yemenis of various socioeconomic backgrounds took to the streets of the rebel-controlled capital, Sana'a, to voice their anger at the Saudi intervention.
On 21 April , representatives of 19 Yemeni political parties and associations rejected UN Resolution , stating that it encouraged terrorist expansion, intervened in Yemen's sovereign affairs, violated Yemen's right of self-defence and emphasized the associations' support of the Yemeni Army.
On 23 April, a spokesman for the Houthis said UN-sponsored peace talks should continue, but only following "a complete halt of attacks" by the coalition.
In a televised address on 24 April, Saleh called on the Houthis and other armed groups to withdraw from the territory they had seized and participate in UN-sponsored peace talks, in exchange for an end to the air campaign.
The statement highlighted an attack that completely destroyed an ancient fortress in the Damt District of the Ad Dali' Governorate. The letter emphasized that Yemen was still under attack by air, land and sea and that the existing blockade was increasing the humanitarian crisis and that education had been denied for 3 million students due to the "random attacks".
On 2 May , the Yemenis Forum of Persons With Disability stated that centres and organizations had been forced to stop operations following the intervention.
The organization denounced the air and sea blockade that "increased the suffering of the disabled greatly". On 7 May, 17 humanitarian agencies stressed that life-saving aid would run out in a week and emphasized the need to remove the existing blockade.
The International Non-Government Organizations Forum in Yemen appealed for allowing basic materials to enter the country immediately.
On 10 May, Houthi military spokesman Sharaf Luqman welcomed the Russian initiative, which advocated a suspension of military operations and also lifting the blockade.
On 26 March , the second anniversary of the war, over a hundred thousand Houthi supporters demonstrated in Sanaa protesting the Saudi aggression and expressing solidarity.
Anti-Houthi groups, especially Sunnis, while supporting the intervention did not wish for the return to power of Hadi, since they viewed him as the man "who ceded control of the capital without a fight six months ago".
On 26 April, the foreign minister in Hadi's government, Riad Yaseen, rejected Saleh's calls for UN-sponsored peace talks on the ground.
On 5 April a firefight broke out between anti-government Shiite rioters and security forces in Saudi Arabia's Shiite-minority in Eastern Province, with one police officer killed and three others injured.
Some regional political analysts speculated that the decision was precipitated by Muqrin's alleged opposition to the intervention. Salman appointed Muhammad bin Nayef , who publicly announced his support of the operation, to replace Muqrin.
The announcement was met with substantial criticism. Among the general populace, the war was popular.
On 3 April Bahrainis protested against the war on Yemen. Supporters of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood demonstrated against Egypt's military intervention.
Shiite parliament member Abdul Hamid Dashti reportedly criticized the war and described it as an "act of aggression". Iran condemned intervention as "US-backed aggression".
Ambassador Gholamali Khoshroo said that "those who violate international law, including international humanitarian law, should be held accountable for their acts and there should be no room for impunity.
We don't need another sectarian war in the region. The Chinese foreign ministry expressed in January its support for the intervention and the Hadi government, while stressing its desire for a resumption of stability in Yemen.
Somalia 's government blamed the Saudi-led coalition for the killing of at least 42 Somali refugees off the Yemeni coast. Somali Prime Minister Hassan Ali Khayre called the attack on a boat carrying refugees "atrocious" and "appalling".
The US not only arms the Saudis, but also provides air refueling and targeting for their warplanes. The American people are not to be blamed though.
Asian countries including China, India , Malaysia and Pakistan, moved within days to evacuate their citizens from Yemen.
On 4 April, the ICRC called for a hour humanitarian ceasefire after the coalition blocked three aid shipments to Yemen. The Parliament clarified the wish to maintain a neutral diplomatic stance.
On 16 April a group of US and UK-based Yemen scholars wrote an open letter, stating that the operation was illegal under international law and calling for the UN to enforce an immediate ceasefire.
On 19 April, international aid agency Oxfam condemned SA over airstrikes it said hit one of its warehouses containing humanitarian supplies in Saada.
Aid groups came out against the air campaign: Amnesty International said some of the coalition's airstrikes "appear to have failed to take necessary precautions to minimize harm to civilians and damage to civilian objects".
On 4 May the UN called on the coalition to stop attacking Sanaa Airport to allow delivery of humanitarian aid.
In February the Secretary-General of the UN UNSG Ban Ki-moon raised strong concerns over continued Saudi-led airstrikes, saying that "coalition air strikes in particular continue to strike hospitals, schools, mosques and civilian infrastructures" in Yemen.
He urged States that are signatories to the Arms Trade Treaty to "control arms flows to actors that may use them in ways that breach of international humanitarian law".
In June , Ban Ki-moon removed a Saudi-led coalition from a list of children's rights violators,  saying that Saudi Arabia threatened to cut Palestinian aid and funds to other UN programs if coalition was not removed from blacklist for killing children in Yemen.
According to one source, there was also a threat of "clerics in Riyadh meeting to issue a fatwa against the UN, declaring it anti-Muslim, which would mean no contacts of OIC members, no relations, contributions, support, to any UN projects, programs".
AQAP had controlled substantial pieces of territory for some time, while Islamic State claimed for twin bombings in Sanaa the following month that killed people and injured hundreds more.
The two radical groups have used the conflict to expand and consolidate, an obvious fact accepted by the Pentagon. Within weeks of the commencement of the Yemen's civil war, AQAP had exploited the chaos to capture the south-eastern port city of Mukalla ,  along with nearby military, transport, and economic infrastructure.
On 29 February , a suicide car killed 4 pro-Hadi troops in Shiek Othman district in Aden, the city that Hadi uses as a temporary capital. Al-Jazeera reported in August that the Saudi-led coalition secured secret deals with Al Qaeda and recruit hundred of them to fight the Houthis.
Al Jazeera continued to report that the United States was aware of Al-Qaeda joining ranks with the coalition and has held off drone strikes against Al-Qaeda.
On 25 March, Gulf Air , the Bahraini flag carrier airline announced the immediate suspension of service to Sana'a.
Following Hadi's request, the administration of the Egypt-based Nilesat and Saudi-based Arabsat , two satellite communication companies, stopped broadcasting Yemeni state-run television channels that had fallen under Houthi control.
Armed Houthis closed down the Sana'a offices of four media outlets, including Al Jazeera , Yemen Shabab and Suhail channels, as well as Al-Masdar's newspaper and website.
Al-Saeeda channel was also stormed, but was allowed to remain open on the condition it not broadcast anti-Houthi material.
Houthi Political Office member Mohammad Al-Bukhaiti said the channels were closed for supporting the coalition. King Salman replaced his half-brother Muqrin as crown prince with Muhammad bin Nayef and named his son Mohammed bin Salman as defence minister, and then-Ambassador to the United States Adel al-Jubeir as foreign minister.
Some reports linked the cabinet reshuffle to the war. The exiled Yemeni government sent a request to the UN, asking for foreign troops on the ground.
On 19 June, WikiLeaks announced the intention of releasing over , Saudi diplomatic documents to the internet.
In its statement, WikiLeaks referred to a recent electronic attack on the Saudi Foreign Ministry by a group calling itself the Yemen Cyber Army , but did not indicate whether they passed the documents to WikiLeaks.
Rebel spokesman Hamed al-Bokheiti said the Houthis were willing to hold talks in any "neutral" country. On 26 May, Ban announced that the peace talks were to be postponed indefinitely after exiled Yemeni officials refused to attend until rebels withdrew from all occupied cities.
Secretary-General Ban called for a "humanitarian pause" during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Peace talks between the exiled government and the Houthis concluded in Geneva without reaching a ceasefire.
The US and EU announced their support for a humanitarian truce. The Special Envoy to Yemen assured the agreement of all warring factions.
In it, the envoy confirms that Houthi rebels and the party of former president and Houthi ally Ali Abdullah Saleh have expressed willingness to accept — with some reservations — a UN Security Council resolution, approved in April.
This demanded the rebels "withdraw their forces from all areas they have seized, including the capital, Sanaa". According to Ould Cheikh Ahmed, during talks, the Houthis gave ground on certain language, including "mandatory support by the international community for reconstruction that was in the earlier version".
A statement from Hadi's office following a meeting on the issue of new talks affirmed the president's "complete support for the sincere efforts exerted by the special envoy".
It urged Ahmed to "exert efforts to achieve the public and honest commitment on the part of the Houthis and Saleh" to implement 14 April council resolution unconditionally.
On 18 April, peace talks aimed at ending Yemen's civil war that were set to begin faltered before they could start, when delegates representing Yemen's Houthi rebels refused to attend.
On 20 April, talks convened, based on UN Security Council resolution which called for the Houthi fighters to withdraw from areas they seized since and hand heavy weapons back to the government.
He said that the negotiations were not a failure and that they would resume in a month at an undisclosed location. Ahmed is the second United Nations envoy to try to broker peace talks between the Houthis and other factions in Yemen since March His predecessor quit after similar peace talk efforts failed.
After the breakdown of the talks, one of the Houthi negotiators, Nasser Bagazgooz, blamed the United Nations envoy for seeking what he said amounted to a military solution on behalf of the Saudi-led coalition.
But the exiled Hadi leaders have consistently rejected any deal that would diminish their power over Yemen, and the Houthis have said that they will reject any deal that does not give them a seat at the table.
The Saudi-led military coalition and Houthis Ansar Allah arrived at a swift ceasefire agreement effective 17 November , as a result of efforts of U.
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It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. The military situation in Yemen on 1 May Note that Houthi forces also control border areas in Saudi Arabia not shown on the map.
Controlled by the Revolutionary Committee. Controlled by the Hadi-led government and allies. Controlled by Southern Transitional Council.